Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: history, molecular mechanisms and epidemiological aspects of an emerging global threat

Costa-Lourenço APRD Barros dos Santos KT Moreira BM Fracalanzza SEL Bonelli RR
Costa-Lourenço APRD, Barros dos Santos KT, Moreira BM, Fracalanzza SEL, Bonelli RR
|October 01, 2017


Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection with an estimate from The World Health Organization of 78 million new cases in people aged 15-49 worldwide during 2012. If left untreated, complications may include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Antimicrobial treatment is usually effective; however, resistance has emerged successively through various molecular mechanisms for all the regularly used therapeutic agents throughout decades. Detection of antimicrobial susceptibility is currently the most critical aspect for N. gonorrhoeae surveillance, however poorly structured health systems pose difficulties. In this review, we compiled data from worldwide reports regarding epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, and highlight the relevance of the implementation of surveillance networks to establish policies for gonorrhea treatment.